Centro Histórico


Centro Histórico Urbano de CienfuegosDentro del Cienfuegos actual, el Centro Histórico Urbano de Cienfuegos es la zona que resume las diferentes épocas, cuyos testimonios desde su inicial organización y trazado urbano, nos ofrecen los procesos creativos arquitectónicos y de técnicas constructivas, refleja las costumbres, forma de vida, cultura material y espiritual que lo singulariza.

El Centro Histórico sureño tiene una superficie de 90 hectáreas y 91 manzanas. Toda esta zona forma un conjunto de alto valor monumental, cualificado a través de sus 1.5 km, por un mobiliario urbano y un entorno arquitectónico que lo jerarquiza dentro del Centro Histórico, junto al Parque José Martí y sus nexos viales de la Calle San Fernando y San Carlos constituyen los polos de máxima importancia dentro de la zona.

Este conjunto urbano de trazado ortogonal en forma de cuadrícula, con manzanas de 100 varas de lado y orientadas hacia los ejes cardinales ocupa 90 ha de su zona más antigua. Se destaca la gran compactación, donde los espacios libres hacia los laterales y las vías no existen sino, una homogénea integración constructiva y estilística que hace de Cienfuegos un caso excepcional del urbanismo cubano del Siglo XIX. No obstante, a los grandes hitos arquitectónicos que sobresalen dentro del Centro Histórico, la mayor trascendencia del mismo se alcanza en la unidad ambiental que logran estos valores puntuales con la inmensa masa de edificaciones que las rodean, definiendo una imagen homogénea y coherente que se percibe como un todo.

Culturalmente el Centro Histórico ha jugado un importante papel como escenario de las actividades en él desarrolladas. Tradiciones teatrales -con descollantes figuras locales como Luisa Martínez Casado y Arquímedes Pous, unidas a destacados artistas y compañías de prestigio internacional que nos visitaron- conformaron un ambiente cultural propicio al disfrute espiritual del hombre.

La música popular y las artes plásticas han devenido en tradiciones artísticas. El gusto estético en tal sentido, generado desde el siglo XIX por la decoración de interiores -por ejemplo la del teatro Tomás Terry que corrió a cargo del pintor español Camilo Salaya- tuvo sus continuadores en creadores destacados como Mateo Torriente, Juan David y Benjamín Duarte.

Las sociedades de construcción y recreo alcanzaron su máximo reconocimiento con la construcción de edificios representativos. Es el caso del Liceo en el paseo del Prado, Minerva en la calle Arguelles y la creación del Club Ateneo, en la segunda planta del Teatro “Terry”, de vital importancia en la promoción de los valores artísticos locales y la confrontación con otros del país y el extranjero.

Al triunfo de la Revolución, la política cultural del país se encaminó al fomento de la actividad artística desarrollada por aficionados, como posibilidad de eliminar el carácter elitista en que se encontraba inmersa la cultura. El Teatro “Terry” reabre sus puertas tras una importante restauración en la que intervino el destacado escultor local Mateo Torriente, al Parque José Martí se le dotó de instalaciones culturales en la otrora vivienda de familias acomodadas. Paulatinamente estas instalaciones fueron: la Casa de Cultura, el Museo Provincial y la Galería de Reproducciones de Arte Universal. Además se retomaron las tradicionales funciones de la Banda Municipal que tienen como sede la hermosa glorieta construida en 1942. En el Paseo del Prado se crea la Sala de Teatro guiñol y se recupera el antiguo edificio erigido para Liceo, como Biblioteca de carácter provincial. Todo ello en un plan que tiende a cualificar culturalmente esta zona que desde el siglo XIX, junto al paseo del Prado en la presente centuria sirvieron de escenario al intercambio social y cultural de los habitantes de Cienfuegos. El Centro Histórico Urbano de Cienfuegos fue declarado Monumento Nacional el 17 de abril de 1995. Esta misma zona fue declarada además Patrimonio Cultura de la Humanidad en el 2005, gracias a la conservación y valores patrimoniales de su entorno.

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132 comentarios

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